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Improving the Performance of Time Integrated Sampling of TO14 Compounds into Stainless Steel Canisters

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Time integrated sampling of TO14 compounds into stainless steel canisters was evaluated under a variety of conditions. Four different flow controllers were tested at temperatures ranging from 4 deg. C to 40 deg. C to determine how well they maintained a constant flow rate despite changes in ambient temperatures. The three flow controllers with fixed restrictors maintained a relatively constant flow rate over the temperatures tested, while the flow controller with a variable flow restrictor showed an increase in flow of 1300% as the temperature was raised from 4-40 deg. C. The effect water has on recovery was also studied by sampling under dry conditions (RH=10%) and more normal conditions (RH=50%).

Finally, individual parts that make up a passive canister sampler were evaluated to determine how each affects the recovery of TO14 analytes. Recoveries increased as flow path cleanliness improved and adsorptive surfaces were eliminated. The greatest improvements in recovery were obtained by electropolishing the inside of inlet tubing, and by replacing the 2um stainless steel inlet filter with a deactivated glass frit.

Entech 2018 Catalog

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This is the complete Entech 2018 Catalog. You can download the PDF or use our Flipbook viewer (below) for a smoother experience. Please note that not all sampling products are included. The Entech store is the best place to find photos and descriptions of every product we carry.


Silonite Classical Canisters

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We have Canister sizes for all your needs

Entech’s SiloniteTM (SiloniteTM VS Summa) canisters feature a large volume capacity for detection of volatile chemicals down to the low part per trillion range. An inert and durable internal SiloniteTM coating provides a high-quality, long-term sample storage solution. Losses in the valve are avoided by using our new Toxic Organics ValveTM (TOV-2TM) which includes Entech’s new “sure-seal” technology and low carryover, replaceable nickel ferrules. An integrated valve guard is securely welded to the canister for superior light-weight valve protection without any stresses to the valve stem associated with heavy “strapped-type” valve guards. These canisters are certified to meet or exceed the technical specifications required for EPA methods TO-14a and TO-15. High-quality performance is verified for EVERY canister with our demanding chemical inertness tests.

Common Applications

Air Toxics


Soil Gas

Vapor Intrusion

Indoor Air Quality

Ambient Air

The Silonite™ Advantage

Learn more about Silonite™ Coated Canisters below!

Silonite™ Coated

100% inertness tested prior to shipment. Polished internal surface prior to Silonite™ coating for the most inert surface possible.
Silonite™ ensures there is no chance for corrosion and the subsequent loss of reactive compounds.
Silonite™ canisters are the only inertness-repairable canisters on the market. No need to fear canister inertness testing. Entech’s renewal process can return old Silonite™ cans to better than new conditions.
Externally electro-polished “after” Silonite™ coating to provide a more analytical and professional look.

Uncoated Canister

Rapidly lose their ability to recover important VOCs such as Carbon Tetrachloride. During the manufacturing of 6L half shells, organic contaminants in the form of grease and oils become trapped in the surface pores found in all stainless steel sheet metal.
Interior will easily corrode.
The metal oxides found in SUMMA canisters can actually be catalytic in promoting certain chemical reactions.
Because of the limited inertness of the SUMMA canister, a certain amount of water vapor is actually needed to allow Air Toxic compounds to remain stable. Even aromatic hydrocarbons can be lost to the surface of a SUMMA canister if enough water isn’t present.

Every Can is Tested

15L Canister

6L Canister

3.2L Canister

2.7L Canister

Want smaller cans? We have those too!

MiniCansTM are the next generation of air sampling canisters from Entech. Designed for tool-free operation and advanced robotic analyzers, Silonite® treated MiniCans™ allow the recovery of a wider range of compounds than any other sampling canister – including semi-volatiles up through the full diesel range and C25hydrocarbons.

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Ambient Air Monitoring using EPA TO-14A & TO-15 canister methods

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Chemical airborne vapors from man-made sources constitute potential human health hazards, as well as having adverse effects on the Environment as a whole.


More and more attention is now being given to monitoring levels of volatile chemicals from PPM down to sub-PPB levels, as chronic exposure even at low levels may lead to a number of different health conditions, including cancer.

Volatile and Semi-volatile chemicals both in our outdoor and indoor air must be considered in determining overall human exposure. Measurement of these chemicals in air is usually performed by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry to quantify concentration levels of individual compounds to determine the overall exposure risks.

Usually, levels are too low for direct GCMS detection, requiring sample enrichment or pre-concentration for detection down to PPB (parts per billion) and sub-PPB levels. “Whole Air” field collection of air samples into inert canisters continues to be the Gold Standard for obtaining accurate air monitoring results, using evacuated containers which are opened in the field to collect the air sample, followed by laboratory analysis under reliable and controlled conditions.

Alternative approaches using thermal desorption tubes modify the sample in the field, exposing the collected chemicals to a more reactive environment which often results in inconsistent recovery during thermal desorption in the laboratory.

Entech is the world leader in providing canister monitoring technology based on US EPA Methods TO-14A and TO-15. Virtually hundreds of volatile and semi-volatile compounds can be recovered using this approach, making canisters the most universal technique for measuring virtually every GC compatible airborne compound of interest. Entech places a proprietary ceramic called Silonite™ on the inside of sampling canisters to make them extremely inert, allowing the recovery of more compounds than any other air sampling device.

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